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    Bogd Khanate of Mongoliaball

    Bogd Khanate of Mongoliaball was the theocratic regime in Mongolia between declaring independence from Qingball in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911 and the formation of the Mongolian People's Republicball in 1924.


    Kyakhta Agreement of 1915

    A tripartite conference between the Russian-Empire-icon2.png Russian Empireball, Republic of China-icon (1912-1928).png Republic of Chinaball (1912-1949) and the Bogd Khaan's government convened at Kyakhta in the autumn of 1914.

    The Mongolian representative, Prime Minister Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren, was determined to stretch autonomy into de facto independence and to deny the Chinese anything more than vague, ineffectual suzerain powers. The Chinese sought to minimize, if not end, Mongolian autonomy. The Russian position was somewhere in between. The result was the Kyakhta Treaty of June 1915, which recognized Mongolia's autonomy within the Chinese state.

    Nevertheless, Outer Mongolia remained effectively outside Chinese control and retained the main features of the state according to the international law of that time.

    The Mongolians viewed the treaty as a disaster because it denied the recognition of a truly independent, all-Mongolian state. China regarded the treaty in a similar fashion, consenting only because it was preoccupied with other international problems, especially Japanese-Empire-icon.png Empire of Japanball.

    The treaty did contain one significant feature which the Chinese were later to turn to their advantage; the right to appoint a high commissioner to Urga and deputy high commissioners to Uliastai, Khovd, and Kyakhta. This provided a senior political presence in Mongolia, which had been lacking.


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