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My Fav Games
- =Cool sandbox game, BUT I DON'T KNOW HOW TO HAVE FUN ON IT... Still I watch a lot of the Youtube videos of Minecraft
- = BEST RHYTHM GAME EVER XAXAXAXAXA, game jumping over spike, 4k graphic quality on custom level perfect!
- Osu= Hard and ez at the same time, kind of same as Geometry Dash in terms of difficulty
- Kugeln.io= Ye, too ez
- Angry Birds= Nostalgic game
- Flappy Bird= It goes forever like t-rex game
- BTD Series= Good as always
- Among Us= But I'm an Engineer...
- Other io games= A lot of them are good, but some are low quality
- Canadaball - The country I'm born in
- Chinaball - My origin!
- Taiwanball - Is good
- Japanball - Anime, and high tech
- Ukraineball - Slava Ukraine!!!
- South Koreaball - Real Korea
- Austriaball - Neutral one :)
- USAball - Is best friends with Canada, so why not?
- Vatican Cityball - Is Holy!
- Swedenball - Minecraft and Geometry Dash, and also, I support you joining NATO.
- Liechtensteinball - Very rich history indeed.
- San Marinoball - also rich history.
- Monacoball - very rich
- Switzerlandball - I respect u being neutral, still good relations though, BUT REMOVE NESTLE, MAKE IT STOP TORTURING PEOPLE!!!
- Russiaball - Stop invading Ukraine!
- Indiaball - REMOVE T-SERIES, REMOVE REMOVE REMOVE, AND STOP BEING RACIST, YOU MONSTER!!!
- ISIS - WHY?
- Fake Afghanistan - shut up
- Abuse Filter - YOU IDOIT, WHY U BAN PPL FOR NO REASON!??!?!?!??!?!
Countries that I recognize them/support their independence:
- Taiwanball - Screw the One China Policy, I recognize both.
- Somalilandball - Hope you gain independence from crazy pirate.
- Kosovoball - It's ok, I support you.
- Western Saharaball - Go on buddy, I support your independence :)
Countries that I don't recognize their independence:
- Transnistriaball - Soviet lover
- Artsakhball - dunno much 'bout you, but I heard you are of Russian puppet.
- Palestineball - You are of holy land.
Geologic Time Scale
* MYA means "Million Years Ago", TYA means "Thousand Years Ago", and MYITF means "Million Years in The Future".
Precambrian (4567.3 - 538.8 MYA)
Hadean (4567.3 - 4000 MYA)
From Hades, Greek: ᾍδης, translit. Háidēs, the god of the underworld (the hell, the inferno) in the Greek mythology. Formation of protolith of the oldest known rock (Acasta Gneiss) c. 4,031 to 3,580 Ma. Possible first appearance of plate tectonics. First hypothetical life forms. End of the Early Bombardment Phase. Oldest known mineral (Zircon, 4,404 ± 8 Ma). Asteroids and comets bring water to Earth, forming the first oceans. Formation of Moon (4,533 to 4,527 Ma), probably from a giant impact. Formation of Earth (4,570 to 4,567.17 Ma)
Archean (4000 - 2500 MYA)
From the Greek word αρχή (archē), meaning 'beginning, origin'.
Eoarchean (4000 - 3600 MYA)
From the Greek words Ηώς (Ēṓs) meaning 'dawn', and ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos) meaning 'ancient'. First uncontroversial living organisms: at first protocells with RNA-based genes around 4000 Ma, after which true cells (prokaryotes) evolve along with proteins and DNA-based genes around 3800 Ma. The end of the Late Heavy Bombardment. Napier Orogeny in Antarctica, 4,000 ± 200 Ma.
Paleoarchean (3600 - 3200 MYA)
From the Greek words παλιός (palaiós) meaning 'old', and ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos) meaning 'ancient'. Prokaryotic archaea (e.g. methanogens) and bacteria (e.g. cyanobacteria) diversify rapidly, along with early viruses. First known phototrophic bacteria. Oldest definitive microfossils. First microbial mats. Oldest cratons on Earth (such as the Canadian Shield and the Pilbara Craton) may have formed during this period. Rayner Orogeny in Antarctica.
Mesoarchean (3200 - 2800 MYA)
From the Greek words μέσο (méso) meaning 'middle', and ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos) meaning 'ancient'. First stromatolites (probably colonial phototrophic bacteria, like cyanobacteria). Oldest macrofossils. Humboldt Orogeny in Antarctica. Blake River Megacaldera Complex begins to form in present-day Ontario and Quebec, ends by roughly 2,696 Ma.
Neoarchean (2800 - 2500 MYA)
From the Greek words νέος (néos) meaning 'new' or 'young', and ἀρχαῖος (arkhaîos) meaning 'ancient'. Stabilization of most modern cratons; possible mantle overturn event. Insell Orogeny, 2,650 ± 150 Ma. Abitibi greenstone belt in present-day Ontario and Quebec begins to form, stabilizes by 2,600 Ma. First uncontroversial supercontinent, Kenorland, and first terrestrial prokaryotes.
Proterozoic (2500 - 538.8 MYA)
From the Greek words πρότερος (próteros) meaning 'former' or 'earlier', and ζωή (zoē) meaning 'life'.
Paleoproterozoic (2500 - 1600 MYA)
From the Greek words παλιός (palaiós) meaning 'old', πρότερος (próteros) meaning 'former' or 'earlier', and ζωή (zōḗ) meaning 'life'.
Siderian (2500 - 2300 MYA)
From the Greek word σίδηρος (sídēros) meaning 'iron'. Great Oxidation Event (due to cyanobacteria) increases oxygen. Sleaford Orogeny on Australian continent, Gawler Craton 2,440–2,420 Ma.
Rhyacian (2300 - 2050 MYA)
From the Greek word ῥύαξ (rhýax) meaning 'stream of lava'. Bushveld Igneous Complex forms. Huronian glaciation. First hypothetical eukaryotes. Multicellular Francevillian biota. Kenorland disassembles.
Orosirian (2050 - 1800 MYA)
From the Greek word ὀροσειρά (oroseirá) meaning 'mountain range'. The atmosphere becomes much more oxygenic while more cyanobacterial stromatolites appear. Vredefort and Sudbury Basin asteroid impacts. Much orogeny. Penokean and Trans-Hudsonian Orogenies in North America. Early Ruker Orogeny in Antarctica, 2,000–1,700 Ma. Glenburgh Orogeny, Glenburgh Terrane, Australian continent c. 2,005–1,920 Ma. Kimban Orogeny, Gawler craton in Australian continent begins.
Statherian (1800 - 1600 MYA)
From the Greek word σταθερός (statherós) meaning 'stable'. First uncontroversial eukaryotes: protists with nuclei and endomembrane system. Columbia forms as the second undisputed earliest supercontinent. Kimban Orogeny in Australian continent ends. Yapungku Orogeny on Yilgarn craton, in Western Australia. Mangaroon Orogeny, 1,680–1,620 Ma, on the Gascoyne Complex in Western Australia. Kararan Orogeny (1,650 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia. Oxygen levels drop again.
Mesoproterozoic (1600 - 1000 MYA)
From the Greek words μέσο (méso) meaning 'middle', πρότερος (próteros) meaning 'former' or 'earlier', and ζωή (zōḗ) meaning 'life'.
Calymmian (1600 - 1400 MYA)
From the Greek word κάλυμμᾰ (kálumma) meaning 'cover'. Platform covers expand. Barramundi Orogeny, McArthur Basin, Northern Australia, and Isan Orogeny, c. 1,600 Ma, Mount Isa Block, Queensland. First archaeplastidans (the first eukaryotes with plastids from cyanobacteria; e.g. red and green algae) and opisthokonts (giving rise to the first fungi and holozoans). Acritarchs (remains of marine algae possibly) start appearing in the fossil record.
Ectasian (1400 - 1200 MYA)
From the Greek word ἔκτᾰσῐς (éktasis) meaning 'extension'. Platform covers continue to expand. Algal colonies in the seas. Grenville Orogeny in North America. Columbia breaks up.
Stenian (1200 - 1000 MYA)
From the Greek word στενός (stenós) meaning 'narrow'. Narrow highly metamorphic belts due to orogeny as Rodinia forms, surrounded by the Pan-African Ocean. Sveconorwegian orogeny starts. Late Ruker / Nimrod Orogeny in Antarctica possibly begins. Musgrave Orogeny (c. 1,080–), Musgrave Block, Central Australia. Stromatolites decline as algae proliferate.
Neoproterozoic (1000 - 538.8 MYA)
From the Greek words νέος (néos) meaning 'new' or 'young', πρότερος (próteros) meaning 'former' or 'earlier', and ζωή (zōḗ) meaning 'life'.
Tonian (1000 - 720 MYA)
From the Greek word τόνος (tónos) meaning 'stretch'. Final assembly of Rodinia supercontinent occurs in early Tonian, with breakup beginning c. 800 Ma. Sveconorwegian orogeny ends. Grenville Orogeny tapers off in North America. Lake Ruker / Nimrod Orogeny in Antarctica, 1,000 ± 150 Ma. Edmundian Orogeny (c. 920–850 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia. Deposition of Adelaide Superbasin and Centralian Superbasin begins on Australian continent. First hypothetical animals (from holozoans) and terrestrial algal mats. Many endosymbiotic events concerning red and green algae occur, transferring plastids to ochrophyta (e.g. diatoms, brown algae), dinoflagellates, cryptophyta, haptophyta, and euglenids (the events may have begun in the Mesoproterozoic) while the first retarians (e.g. forams) also appear: eukaryotes diversify rapidly, including algal, eukaryovoric and biomineralized forms. Trace fossils of simple multi-celled eukaryotes.
Cryogenian (720 - 635 MYA)
From the Greek words κρύος (krýos) meaning 'cold', and, γένεσις (génesis) meaning 'birth'. Possible "Snowball Earth" period. Fossils still rare. Late Ruker / Nimrod Orogeny in Antarctica tapers off. First uncontroversial animal fossils. First hypothetical terrestrial fungi and streptophyta.
Ediacaran (635 - 538.8 MYA)
Named for the Ediacara Hills. Ediacara is possibly a corruption of the Kuyani words 'Yata Takarra' meaning hard or stony ground. Good fossils of primitive animals. Ediacaran biota flourish worldwide in seas, possibly appearing after an explosion, possibly caused by a large-scale oxidation event. First vendozoans (unknown affinity among animals), cnidarians and bilaterians. Enigmatic vendozoans include many soft-jellied creatures shaped like bags, disks, or quilts (like Dickinsonia). Simple trace fossils of possible worm-like Trichophycus, etc.Taconic Orogeny in North America. Aravalli Range orogeny in Indian subcontinent. Beginning of Pan-African Orogeny, leading to the formation of the short-lived Ediacaran supercontinent Pannotia, which by the end of the period breaks up into Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia and Gondwana. Petermann Orogeny forms on Australian continent. Beardmore Orogeny in Antarctica, 633–620 Ma. Ozone layer forms. An increase in oceanic mineral levels.
Cambrian (538.8 MYA - 2800 MYITF)
Phanerozoic (538.8 MYA - 1000 MYITF)
From the Greek words φανερός (phanerós) meaning 'visible' or 'abundant', and ζωή (zoē) meaning 'life'.
Paleozoic (538.8 - 251.9 MYA)
From the Greek words παλιός (palaiós) meaning 'old', and ζωή (zōḗ) meaning 'life'.
Cambrian (538.8 to 485.4 MYA)
Named for Cambria, a latinised form of the Welsh name for Wales, Cymru. Major diversification of (fossils mainly show bilaterian) life in the Cambrian Explosion as oxygen levels increase. Numerous fossils; most modern animal phyla (including arthropods, molluscs, annelids, echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates) appear. Reef-building archaeocyathan sponges initially abundant, then vanish. Stromatolites replace them, but quickly fall prey to the Agronomic revolution, when some animals started burrowing through the microbial mats (affecting some other animals as well). First artiopods (including trilobites), priapulid worms, inarticulate brachiopods (unhinged lampshells), hyoliths, bryozoans, graptolites, pentaradial echinoderms (e.g. blastozoans, crinozoans and eleutherozoans), and numerous other animals. Anomalocarids are dominant and giant predators, while many Ediacaran fauna die out. Crustaceans and molluscs diversify rapidly. Prokaryotes, protists (e.g., forams), algae and fungi continue to present day. First vertebrates from earlier chordates. Petermann Orogeny on the Australian continent tapers off (550–535 Ma). Ross Orogeny in Antarctica. Delamerian Orogeny (c. 514–490 Ma) on Australian continent. Some small terranes split off from Gondwana. Atmospheric CO2 content roughly 15 times present-day (Holocene) levels (6000 ppm compared to today's 400 ppm)[note 8] Arthropods and streptophyta start colonizing land. 3 extinction events occur 517, 502 & 488 Ma, the first and last of which wipe out many of the anomalocarids, artiopods, hyoliths, brachiopods, molluscs, and conodonts (early jawless vertebrates).
Ordovician (485.4 - 443.8 MYA)
Named after the Celtic tribe, Ordovices. The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event occurs as plankton increase in number: invertebrates diversify into many new types (especially brachiopods and molluscs; e.g. long straight-shelled cephalopods like the long lasting and diverse Orthocerida). Early corals, articulate brachiopods (Orthida, Strophomenida, etc.), bivalves, cephalopods (nautiloids), trilobites, ostracods, bryozoans, many types of echinoderms (blastoids, cystoids, crinoids, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and star-like forms, etc.), branched graptolites, and other taxa all common. Acritarchs still persist and common. Cephalopods become dominant and common, with some trending toward a coiled shell. Anomalocarids decline. Mysterious tentaculitans appear. First eurypterids and ostracoderm fish appear, the latter probably giving rise to the jawed fish at the end of the period. First uncontroversial terrestrial fungi and fully terrestrialized plants. Ice age at the end of this period, as well as a series of mass extinction events, killing off some cephalopods and many brachiopods, bryozoans, echinoderms, graptolites, trilobites, bivalves, corals and conodonts.
Silurian (443.8 - 419.2 MYA)
Named after the Celtic tribe, the Silures. Ozone layer thickens. First vascular plants and fully terrestrialized arthropods: myriapods, hexapods (including insects), and arachnids. Eurypterids diversify rapidly, becoming widespread and dominant. Cephalopods continue to flourish. True jawed fishes, along with ostracoderms, also roam the seas. Tabulate and rugose corals, brachiopods (Pentamerida, Rhynchonellida, etc.), cystoids and crinoids all abundant. Trilobites and molluscs diverse; graptolites not as varied. Three minor extinction events. Some echinoderms go extinct. Beginning of Caledonian Orogeny (collision between Laurentia, Baltica and one of the formerly small Gondwanan terranes) for hills in England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and the Scandinavian Mountains. Also continued into Devonian period as the Acadian Orogeny, above (thus Euramerica forms). Taconic Orogeny tapers off. Icehouse period ends late in this period after starting in Late Ordovician. Lachlan Orogeny on Australian continent tapers off.
Devonian (419.2 - 358.9 MYA)
Named after Devon, England. First lycopods, ferns, seed plants (seed ferns, from earlier progymnosperms), first trees (the progymnosperm Archaeopteris), and first winged insects (palaeoptera and neoptera). Strophomenid and atrypid brachiopods, rugose and tabulate corals, and crinoids are all abundant in the oceans. First fully coiled cephalopods (Ammonoidea and Nautilida, independently) with the former group very abundant (especially goniatites). Trilobites and ostracoderms decline, while jawed fishes (placoderms, lobe-finned and ray-finned bony fish, and acanthodians and early cartilaginous fish) proliferate. Some lobe finned fish transform into digited fishapods, slowly becoming amphibious. The last non-trilobite artiopods die off. First decapods (like prawns) and isopods. Pressure from jawed fishes cause eurypterids to decline and some cephalopods to lose their shells while anomalocarids vanish. "Old Red Continent" of Euramerica persists after forming in the Caledonian orogeny. Beginning of Acadian Orogeny for Anti-Atlas Mountains of North Africa, and Appalachian Mountains of North America, also the Antler, Variscan, and Tuhua orogenies in New Zealand. A series of extinction events, including the massive Kellwasser and Hangenberg ones, wipe out many acritarchs, corals, sponges, molluscs, trilobites, eurypterids, graptolites, brachiopods, crinozoans (e.g. all cystoids), and fish, including all placoderms and ostracoderms.
Carboniferous (358.9 - 298.9 MYA)
Means 'coal-bearing', from the Latin carbō (coal) and ferō (to bear, carry). Winged insects radiate suddenly; some (esp. Protodonata and Palaeodictyoptera) of them as well some millipedes and scorpions become very large. First coal forests (scale trees, ferns, club trees, giant horsetails, Cordaites, etc.). Higher atmospheric oxygen levels. Ice Age continues to the Early Permian. Goniatites, brachiopods, bryozoa, bivalves, and corals plentiful in the seas and oceans. First woodlice. Testate forams proliferate. Euramerica collides with Gondwana and Siberia-Kazakhstania, the latter of which forms Laurasia and the Uralian orogeny. Variscan orogeny continues (these collisions created orogenies, and ultimately Pangaea). Amphibians (e.g. temnospondyls) spread in Euramerica, with some becoming the first amniotes. Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse occurs, initiating a dry climate which favors amniotes over amphibians. Amniotes diversify rapidly into synapsids, parareptiles, cotylosaurs, protorothyridids and diapsids. Rhizodonts remained common before they died out by the end of the period. First sharks. Large lycopodian primitive trees flourish and amphibious eurypterids live amid coal-forming coastal swamps, radiating significantly one last time. First gymnosperms. First holometabolous, paraneopteran, polyneopteran, odonatopteran and ephemeropteran insects and first barnacles. First five-digited tetrapods (amphibians) and land snails. In the oceans, bony and cartilaginous fishes are dominant and diverse; echinoderms (especially crinoids and blastoids) abundant. Corals, bryozoans, orthoceridans, goniatites and brachiopods (Productida, Spiriferida, etc.) recover and become very common again, but trilobites and nautiloids decline. Glaciation in East Gondwana continues from Late Devonian. Tuhua Orogeny in New Zealand tapers off. Some lobe finned fish called rhizodonts become abundant and dominant in freshwaters. Siberia collides with a different small continent, Kazakhstania.
Permian (298.9 - 251.9 MYA)
Named after the historical region of Perm, Russian Empire. Landmasses unite into supercontinent Pangaea, creating the Urals, Ouachitas and Appalachians, among other mountain ranges (the superocean Panthalassa or Proto-Pacific also forms). End of Permo-Carboniferous glaciation. Hot and dry climate. A possible drop in oxygen levels. Synapsids (pelycosaurs and therapsids) become widespread and dominant, while parareptiles and temnospondyl amphibians remain common, with the latter probably giving rise to modern amphibians in this period. In the mid-Permian, lycophytes are heavily replaced by ferns and seed plants. Beetles and flies evolve. The very large arthropods and non-tetrapod tetrapodomorphs go extinct. Marine life flourishes in warm shallow reefs; productid and spiriferid brachiopods, bivalves, forams, ammonoids (including goniatites), and orthoceridans all abundant. Crown reptiles arise from earlier diapsids, and split into the ancestors of lepidosaurs, kuehneosaurids, choristoderes, archosaurs, testudinatans, ichthyosaurs, thalattosaurs, and sauropterygians. Cynodonts evolve from larger therapsids. Olson's Extinction (273 Ma), End-Capitanian extinction (260 Ma), and Permian-Triassic extinction event (252 Ma) occur one after another: more than 80% of life on Earth becomes extinct in the lattermost, including most retarian plankton, corals (Tabulata and Rugosa die out fully), brachiopods, bryozoans, gastropods, ammonoids (the goniatites die off fully), insects, parareptiles, synapsids, amphibians, and crinoids (only articulates survived), and all eurypterids, trilobites, graptolites, hyoliths, edrioasteroid crinozoans, blastoids and acanthodians. Ouachita and Innuitian orogenies in North America. Uralian orogeny in Europe/Asia tapers off. Altaid orogeny in Asia. Hunter-Bowen Orogeny on Australian continent begins (c. 260–225 Ma), forming the MacDonnell Ranges.
Mesozoic (251.9 - 66 MYA)
From the Greek words μέσο (méso) meaning 'middle', and ζωή (zōḗ) meaning 'life'.
Triassic (251.9 - 201.4 MYA)
From the Trias of Friedrich August von Alberti in reference to a trio of formations widespread in southern Germany. Archosaurs dominant on land as pseudosuchians and in the air as pterosaurs. Dinosaurs also arise from bipedal archosaurs. Ichthyosaurs and nothosaurs (a group of sauropterygians) dominate large marine fauna. Cynodonts become smaller and nocturnal, eventually becoming the first true mammals, while other remaining synapsids die out. Rhynchosaurs (archosaur relatives) also common. Seed ferns called Dicroidium remained common in Gondwana, before being replaced by advanced gymnosperms. Many large aquatic temnospondyl amphibians. Ceratitidan ammonoids extremely common. Modern corals and teleost fish appear, as do many modern insect orders and suborders. First starfish. Andean Orogeny in South America. Cimmerian Orogeny in Asia. Rangitata Orogeny begins in New Zealand. Hunter-Bowen Orogeny in Northern Australia, Queensland and New South Wales ends, (c. 260–225 Ma). Carnian pluvial event occurs around 234–232 Ma, allowing the first dinosaurs and lepidosaurs (including rhynchocephalians) to radiate. Triassic-Jurassic extinction event occurs 201 Ma, wiping out all conodonts and the last parareptiles, many marine reptiles (e.g. all sauropterygians except plesiosaurs and all ichthyosaurs except parvipelvians), all crocopodans except crocodylomorphs, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs, and many ammonoids (including the whole Ceratitida), bivalves, brachiopods, corals and sponges. First diatoms.
Jurassic (201.4 - 145 MYA)
Named after the Jura Mountains. Originally used by Alexander von Humboldt as 'Jura Kalkstein' (Jura limestone) in 1799. Alexandre Brongniart was the first to publish the term Jurassic in 1829. Climate becomes humid again. Gymnosperms (especially conifers, cycads and cycadeoids) and ferns common. Dinosaurs, including sauropods, carnosaurs, stegosaurs and coelurosaurs, become the dominant land vertebrates. Mammals diversify into shuotheriids, australosphenidans, eutriconodonts, multituberculates, symmetrodonts, dryolestids and boreosphenidans but mostly remain small. First birds, lizards, snakes and turtles. First brown algae, rays, shrimps, crabs and lobsters. Parvipelvian ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs diverse. Rhynchocephalians throughout the world. Bivalves, ammonoids and belemnites abundant. Sea urchins very common, along with crinoids, starfish, sponges, and terebratulid and rhynchonellid brachiopods. Breakup of Pangaea into Laurasia and Gondwana, with the latter also breaking into two main parts; the Pacific and Arctic Oceans form. Tethys Ocean forms. Nevadan orogeny in North America. Rangitata and Cimmerian orogenies taper off. Atmospheric CO2 levels 3–4 times the present-day levels (1200–1500 ppmv, compared to today's 400 ppmv[note 8]). Crocodylomorphs (last pseudosuchians) seek out an aquatic lifestyle. Mesozoic marine revolution continues from late Triassic. Tentaculitans disappear.
Cretaceous (145 - 66 MYA)
Derived from Terrain Crétacé used in 1822 by Jean d'Omalius d'Halloy in reference to extensive beds of chalk within the Paris Basin. Ultimately derived from the Latin crēta meaning (chalk). Flowering plants proliferate (after developing many features since the Carboniferous), along with new types of insects, while other seed plants (gymnosperms and seed ferns) decline. More modern teleost fish begin to appear. Ammonoids, belemnites, rudist bivalves, sea urchins and sponges all common. Many new types of dinosaurs (e.g. tyrannosaurs, titanosaurs, hadrosaurs, and ceratopsids) evolve on land, while crocodilians appear in water and probably cause the last temnospondyls to die out; and mosasaurs and modern types of sharks appear in the sea. The revolution started by marine reptiles and sharks reaches its peak, though ichthyosaurs vanish few million years after being heavily reduced at the Bonarelli Event. Toothed and toothless avian birds coexist with pterosaurs. Modern monotremes, metatherian (including marsupials, who migrate to South America) and eutherian (including placentals, leptictidans and cimolestans) mammals appear while the last non-mammalian cynodonts die out. First terrestrial crabs. Many snails become terrestrial. Further breakup of Gondwana creates South America, Afro-Arabia, Antarctica, Oceania, Madagascar, Greater India, and the South Atlantic, Indian and Antarctic Oceans and the islands of the Indian (and some of the Atlantic) Ocean. Beginning of Laramide and Sevier Orogenies of the Rocky Mountains. Atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide levels similar to present day. Acritarchs disappear. Climate initially warm, but later it cools.
Cenozoic (66 - 0 MYA)
From the Greek words καινός (kainós) meaning 'new', and ζωή (zōḗ) meaning 'life'.
Paleogene (66 - 23 MYA)
Derived from the Greek words παλιός (palaiós) meaning 'old', and γενεά (geneá) meaning 'genesis' or 'birth'.
Starts with Chicxulub impact and the K-Pg extinction event, wiping out all non-avian dinosaurs and pterosaurs, most marine reptiles, many other vertebrates (e.g. many Laurasian metatherians), most cephalopods (only Nautilidae and Coleoidea survived) and many other invertebrates. Climate tropical. Mammals and birds (avians) diversify rapidly into a number of lineages following the extinction event (while the marine revolution stops). Multituberculates and the first rodents widespread. First large birds (e.g. ratites and terror birds) and mammals (up to bear or small hippo size). Alpine orogeny in Europe and Asia begins. First proboscideans and plesiadapiformes (stem primates) appear. Some marsupials migrate to Australia.
Moderate, cooling climate. Archaic mammals (e.g. creodonts, miacoids, "condylarths" etc.) flourish and continue to develop during the epoch. Appearance of several "modern" mammal families. Primitive whales and sea cows diversify after returning to water. Birds continue to diversify. First kelp, diprotodonts, bears and simians. The multituberculates and leptictidans go extinct by the end of the epoch. Reglaciation of Antarctica and formation of its ice cap; End of Laramide and Sevier Orogenies of the Rocky Mountains in North America. Hellenic Orogeny begins in Greece and Aegean Sea. Two transient events of global warming (PETM and ETM-2) and warming climate until the Eocene Climatic Optimum. The Azolla event decreased CO2 levels from 3500 ppm to 650 ppm, setting the stage for a long period of cooling. Greater India collides with Eurasia and starts Himalayan Orogeny (allowing a biotic interchange) while Eurasia completely separates from North America, creating the North Atlantic Ocean. Maritime Southeast Asia diverges from the rest of Eurasia. First passerines, ruminants, pangolins, bats and true primates.
Grande Coupure extinction. Start of widespread Antarctic glaciation. Rapid evolution and diversification of fauna, especially mammals (e.g. first macropods and seals). Major evolution and dispersal of modern types of flowering plants. Cimolestans, miacoids and condylarths go extinct. First neocetes (modern, fully aquatic whales) appear.
Neogene (23 - 2.6 MYA)
Derived from the Greek words νέος (néos) meaning 'new', and γενεά (geneá) meaning 'genesis' or 'birth'.
Messinian Event with hypersaline lakes in empty Mediterranean Basin. Sahara desert formation begins. Moderate icehouse climate, punctuated by ice ages and re-establishment of East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Choristoderes, the last non-crocodilian crocodylomorphs and creodonts go extinct. After separating from gorilla ancestors, chimpanzee and human ancestors gradually separate; Sahelanthropus and Orrorin in Africa. Middle Miocene climate optimum temporarily provides a warm climate. Extinctions in middle Miocene disruption, decreasing shark diversity. First hippos. Ancestor of great apes. Burdigalian Orogeny in Northern Hemisphere. Start of Kaikoura Orogeny forming Southern Alps in New Zealand. Widespread forests slowly draw in massive amounts of CO2, gradually lowering the level of atmospheric CO2 from 650 ppmv down to around 100 ppmv during the Miocene. Modern bird and mammal families become recognizable. The last of the primitive whales go extinct. Grasses become ubiquitous. Ancestor of apes, including humans. Afro-Arabia collides with Eurasia, fully forming the Alpide Belt and closing the Tethys Ocean, while allowing a faunal interchange. At the same time, Afro-Arabia splits into Africa and West Asia.
Greenland ice sheet develops as the cold slowly intensifies towards the Pleistocene. Atmospheric O2 and CO2 content reaches present-day levels while landmasses also reach their current locations (e.g. the Isthmus of Panama joins the North and South Americas, while allowing a faunal interchange). The last non-marsupial metatherians go extinct. Australopithecus common in East Africa; Stone Age begins. Zanclean flooding of the Mediterranean Basin. Cooling climate continues from the Miocene. First equines and elephantines. Ardipithecus in Africa.
Quaternary (2.6 MYA - ? MYITF)
First introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments in France's Seine Basin that appeared to be younger than Tertiary rocks.
Start of Quaternary glaciations and unstable climate. Rise of the Pleistocene megafauna and Homo habilis.
Further cooling of the climate. Giant terror birds go extinct. Spread of Homo erectus across Afro-Eurasia.
Mid-Pleistocene Transition occurs, high amplitude 100 ka glacial cycles. Rise of Homo sapiens.
Eemian interglacial, last glacial period, ending with Younger Dryas. Toba eruption. Pleistocene megafauna (including the last terror birds) extinction. Humans expand into Near Oceania and the Americas.
Climate stabilizes. Current interglacial and Holocene extinction begins. Agriculture begins. Humans spread across the wet Sahara and Arabia, the Extreme North, and the Americas (mainland and the Caribbean).
8.2-kiloyear event, Holocene climatic optimum. Sea level flooding of Doggerland and Sundaland. Sahara becomes a desert. End of Stone Age and start of recorded history. Humans finally expand into the Arctic Archipelago and Greenland.
4.2-kiloyear event, Austronesian expansion, increasing industrial CO2.
We'll reach this epoch if we achieve Type 1 Civilisation in the Kardashev Scale.
We'll reach this epoch if we achieve Type 2 Civilisation in the Kardashev Scale.
Telikozoic (1000 - 2800 MYITF)
Greek for “final life,” all complex life on Earth becomes extinct at this time, leaving just single-celled organisms.
Post-Cambrian (2800 - ∞ MYITF)
Necrozoic (2800 - 5978 MYITF)
Greek for “dead life,” all life on Earth becomes extinct. By this time, conditions would be too harsh to allow any life to occur, even on the poles or underground.
Volceon (5978 - 7931 MYITF)
Earth would be plunged by magma at this time. Corresponds with the Sun's red giant phase. Atmosphere is blasted away, very hot and deadly. Named after the Greek god Vulcan, the god of fire, and the hypothetical planet of the same name. At this eon, Earth would soar across more than thousands of degrees.
Anubeon (7931 - 10^9 MYITF)
Earth would not be likely to survive, if Earth does survive, it would be nothing more than a charred rock orbiting the dead sun, which is now a white dwarf. Corresponds with the Sun's white dwarf phase, given Earth survives the Sun's red giant phase. Near-absolute zero temperature, dark, no water, no life, no atmosphere. Named after the Egyptian god Anubis, god of the dead. Combined with the Vulcanian and Necrozoic eons it makes the Postcambrian supereon. Special thanks for u/nip_dip for coining the last two terms.
Mauroileon (10^9 - 10^32 MYITF)
I coined this term, greek for "dark sun" because the sun (which would be a white dwarf at that time) would become dark, eventually becoming a black dwarf. Earth may be crushed by the sun via the gravitational pull, or it may be ejected out the solar system. The sun would get shot to the dark void and may fall into a black hole.
Aposyntheon (10^32 - ∞ MYITF)
I also coined this term, Greek for "decayed". At this point, Earth would simply decay to absolutely nothing via proton decay, nothing would exist anymore except some light particles and black holes, but they'll also decay later.
- He has Autism.
- He favourite subject is math.
- He is named after the Minecraft block Furnace BUT NOT THE REAL FURNACE.
- He is a Japanese wannabe.
- He is actually of Chinese decent.
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