Backround[edit | edit source]
First Crusade[edit | edit source]
The First Crusade had its origins when the Byzantine Empireball asked the Western Christians for in the combat against Seljukball and Sultanate of Rumball, nevertheless, the Western Europe had plans that went ahead of just helping Byzantine Empireball, deciding to launch a holy war not only to face Seljukball in Anatolia but to conquer the entirety of the Levant, which would give economic, political, and religious advantages to Western Europe, that was suffering internally from poverty and other crisis effects dating back from a period of decentralization and fragmentation. This First Crusade was successful and managed to conquer the holy city of Jerusalemcube and other territories in the Levant, however the Islamic empires would react later and a series of other conflicts would have begun.
The aftermath of the First Crusade was a period of Western Christian expansion attempts after capturing Jerusalemcube, and of reorganization to the Muslims. The Crusaders mainly expanded along the coast of modern-day Lebanonball, founding states such as the County of Tripoliball, but they failed to win over Seljukball in Syriaball, which allowed Muslim forces to counterattack. Zengidball obtained a series of victories against the Crusaders, managing to destroy the County of Edessaball.
Second Crusade[edit | edit source]
The Second Crusade was the European Christian response to the overthrown of the County of Edessaball by Zengidball during the Siege of Edessa. However, the crusade proved to be a complete failure for the European Christians, who failed to resurrect the County of Edessaball and still lost more territories and battles to the Muslims forces in Anatolia, being the Byzantine Empireball forced to sign a truce with Seljukball. In the Iberian peninsula, however, the Crusaders obtained some victories in the long war that was the Reconquest.
In the Middle East still, to further worsen the situation for the European Christians, the Crusaders and Byzantines' defeats placed Jerusalemcube in an extremely vulnerable position, that would later make it an easy target for Sultan Saladin, who took control over Zengidball and founded Ayyubidball following the disintegration of Fatimidball and failed Crusader invasions of Egypt.
Ayyubidball launched in the aftermath of the Crusade a campaign against the Crusader states of the Levant, which culminated in the destruction of Principality of Galileeball and the Lordship of Oultrejordainball, also in a considerable reduction of the territory of the Kingdom of Jerusalemball. The bulk of the Crusader forces in the region were defeated during the Battle of Hattin, which its aftermath allowed the Muslims to retake Jerusalemcube, following the Siege of Jerusalem (1187).
Third Crusade[edit | edit source]
The Third Crusade was the European response to the Muslim reconquest of the holy city of Jerusalemcube by Ayyubidball and weakening of the Crusader forces in the region. It was headed by Angevin Empireball under Richard the Lionheart. The main objective of the Crusade failed because the Crusaders were not able to recover Jerusalemcube, however, the European Christians were able to restore the power of the remaining weakened Crusader states in the region and prevent them from falling to Ayyubidball.
Fourth Crusade[edit | edit source]
The Fourth Crusade was a crusade and invasion with the original purpose of invading Jerusalemcube, which was under the possession of Ayyubidball. After several events had occurred the Crusaders ended in sacking the capital of the Orthodox Christian-controlled Byzantine Empireball and Zadarball. After the Crusade it had resulted in the division of the Byzantine Empireball and the creation of the Latin Empireball.
Fifth Crusade[edit | edit source]
The Fifth Crusade was launched by the Papal Statesball in order to take Egyptball, where Ayyubidball was based in. However, the Crusade's objective failed, first the Crusaders refused to negotiate terms with Ayyubidball, then when they attacked Egyptian cities, after being for a while in the advantage, they ended up suffering one massive defeat that forced them to surrender. An agreement was made, so the Crusaders could be withdrawn from Egyptball alive, an eight-year truce was also signed on account of the defeat. The emperor Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empireball ended up excommunicated by the Papal Statesball for not having sent reinforcements.
Sixth Crusade[edit | edit source]
The Sixth Crusade was launched by the Holy Roman Empireball, which claimed its rights over Cyprusball and Jerusalemcube, but had no support from Papal Statesball, as it was still angry with Holy Roman Empireball since the last Crusade, in which Papal Statesball blamed Holy Roman Empireball for its failure. Papal Statesball then began to attack the lands of Holy Roman Empireball. The European Christians would not gain anything militarily, Emperor Frederick || of Holy Roman Empireball gained popularity with Ayyubidball and the entire of the Islamic world as well for strengthening discourse with them, which caused Jerusalemcube to return to Christian command through diplomatic agreements, in return the Muslims would be tolerated and have their freedom of worship guaranteed in the holy city.
However, this agreement didn't please Papal Statesball that excommunicated Frederick again. Which had effects in the leadership of Kingdom of Jerusalemball, that returned with the enmity between Crusaders and Muslims. Ayyubidball then invited the remnants of Khwarazmianball, that had been defeated by Mongol Empireball, to retake Jerusalemcube. After a siege, the holy city returned to Muslim control in 1244.
Kingdom of Jerusalemball would try to fight back against Ayyubidball and their allied Khwarazmianball by calling Templar Orderball and Hospitaller Orderball to war. The hustle led to the Battle of La Forbie, where the Crusaders were ultimately defeated by the joint Ayyubid-Khwarazmian forces. This would led Papal Statesball to call for a new Crusade.
Seventh Crusade[edit | edit source]
The Seventh Crusade was launched by the Kingdom of Franceball, being motivated by Ayyubidball and Khwarazmianball reclaiming the holy city of Jerusalemcube and defeating Crusader forces in Gazaball. Kingdom of Franceball took advantage of Mongol Empireball inflicting several damages on the Eastern Muslims to attack. The target of the Crusader's attacks was Egyptball, which would serve as the basis for the conquest of the whole Levant. The Crusade was going well until when they tried to take Cairoball, a flood of the Nile resulted in many casualties to the Crusader forces, which were followed by a series of Crusader defeats and Ayyubidball victories. After the Crusaders of Kingdom of Franceball suffered several casualties, with Kingdom of Franceball king being captured and made prisoner along with many others, a high quantity of money was demanded to be paid so he and other Crusader prisoners could be released. The release was then paid, but the war had already been lost, as well as everything they had conquered in Egyptball.
Eighth Crusade[edit | edit source]
The Eighth Crusade was another Crusade launched by the Kingdom of Franceball that as well as the previous one, ended up in a complete failure. Kingdom of Franceball intended to convert Hafsidball Sultan and followers to Christianity, then Hafsidball said they didn't want them there and prepared themselves for war. When Kingdom of Franceball arrived in Tunisiaball, the battles didn't even begin and the army of Kingdom of Franceball was devastated by a plague that took over the region, among the many who died, the Kingdom of Franceball king and his sons were among the casualties. The Crusaders were then forced to left the region. Meanwhile, trade with Tunisball was opened.
Ninth Crusade[edit | edit source]
The Ninth Crusade was launched by the Crusaders to try to contain Mamlukball advances. After defeating the Ilkhanateball of the Mongol Empireball at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, Mamlukball focused all of its forces on fighting the Crusader states of the region. Mamlukball was really putting a lot of effort into the anti-Crusader struggle, they had considerably reduced the territory of Kingdom of Jerusalemball, massacred Templar Orderball in Safed, and after a siege, had the Principality of Antiochball destroyed in 1268. Kingdom of Englandball was the one commanding the Crusade against Mamlukball, but after many battles and clashes that achieved limited victories, Kingdom of Englandball realized it was only wasting time, and so a ten-year truce between Mamlukball and the Crusaders were signed.
Nevertheless, Mamlukball would continue advancing and taking Crusaders territories in the following years, which would result in the fall of all of the remaining Crusader states of the Levant. The County of Tripoliball fell in siege in 1289, and the Kingdom of Jerusalemball in 1291 respectively after the Siege of Acre.
Gallery[edit | edit source]
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